February 22, 2024

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Zarina* is a young Afghan woman entrepreneur. Her drive for innovating, and passion for baking made her one of Afghanistan’s youngest entrepreneurs. Her business is still running, but her clients are scarce and her plans for expansion across the country had to be shut down.
“I told myself that I should travel to Kabul and buy additional equipment, including a fridge, before I expanded my bakery business. This dream never came true as my country fell into the hands of the Taliban.
I used to run a business in my province. I employed five women to bake cookies and cakes that I would sell in a shop I rented in the women’s market.
In Afghanistan, bakery businesses thrive during Eid—a festival that brings Afghan families together to mark new beginnings. For Eid, Afghans welcome guests into their homes where they serve cookies, cakes, donuts, cream rolls, pastries and dried fruits.
My province is very isolated. Mountains and unpaved and bumpy roads discourage people from travelling outside the province unless there is an urgent need. Fearing the damage along the way, shopkeepers do not bring bakery products from Kabul—the capital city of Afghanistan and the main hub where food, clothes and everyday essentials are transported to other provinces. I decided to produce all of these in my province.  First, I opened the bakery business, then I rented my own shop in town, where I sold other items produced by women—handicrafts that celebrate our culture and clothes for women and children.
As word spread that there was a bakery open in our province, people would travel from remote villages to purchase my products. I then realized it was time to expand the business by opening more shops around town. This meant hiring more women and buying the equipment—like fridges to store and keep the products fresh.
Within those weeks, as I was planning my expansion, the Taliban took over Afghanistan. I did not expand my business; I had to shut it down. The women I employed lost their jobs—most people in my province lost their jobs. Women faced restrictions in running businesses and working at all. Businesses can barely survive as people have lost their jobs and there is no purchasing power anymore, and as banks are no longer able to give financial loans.
I am heartbroken, but hopeful. I recently re-opened my business, and I am working on a marketing plan to keep it running. Now that many households know about my business—and since women need a women-friendly space more than ever—I am determined to make anniversaries, celebrations, and family occasions memorable by serving fresh cookies, cakes and pastries. My shop will again be a place for women to come together.”
* Names, locations, and course of events have been changed in this article to ensure the safety of the Afghan woman human rights defender featured.
Mahbouba Sera, one of the world’s most prominent women’s rights activists, chose to stay in Afghanistan after the Taliban takeover in August 2021, to witness what was happening to her country, and to work for a society that benefits all of its people.
Nasima*, 36, is a peacebuilder and a women’s rights activist in Afghanistan. After the Taliban regained effective control of the country a year ago, she continued to work in Afghanistan, in what would soon become one of the world’s most complex humanitarian emergencies.

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